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07385-ti-ng-pashtun-la-gi [2018/11/07 17:08] (current)
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 +<​HTML><​br><​div id="​mw-content-text"​ lang="​vi"​ dir="​ltr"><​div class="​mw-parser-output"><​p><​b>​Tiếng Pashtun</​b>​ (<span lang="​ps"​ title="​Văn bản tiếng Pashto">​پښتو</​span>​ <​i>​Pax̌tō</​i>​ <​small/><​span title="​Kí hiệu đại diện trong IPA" class="​IPA">​[ˈpəʂt̪oː]</​span>​),​ được gọi là <​b>​Afghāni</​b>​ (<span lang="​ps"​ title="​Văn bản tiếng Pashto">​افغانی</​span>​)<​sup id="​cite_ref-Leyden_8-0"​ class="​reference">​[8]</​sup>​ trong tiếng Ba Tư và <​b>​Paṭhānī</​b>​ trong tiếng Hindi và Urdu,<​sup id="​cite_ref-9"​ class="​reference">​[9]</​sup>​ là một ngôn ngữ ở miền Nam-Trung Á, được nói bởi người Pashtun. Người nói ngôn ngữ này có một số tên gọi, gồm Pashtun và Pukhtun và đôi khi Afghan hay Pathan.<​sup id="​cite_ref-T&​amp;​F_4-1"​ class="​reference">​[4]</​sup>​ Đây là một ngôn ngữ Iran Đông, thuộc hệ ngôn ngữ Ấn-Âu.<​sup id="​cite_ref-Henderson_10-0"​ class="​reference">​[10]</​sup><​sup id="​cite_ref-Henderson_1983_11-0"​ class="​reference">​[11]</​sup><​sup id="​cite_ref-Darmesteter_1890_12-0"​ class="​reference">​[12]</​sup>​ Tiếng Pashtun là một trong hai ngôn ngữ chính thức của Afghanistan,<​sup id="​cite_ref-AC_5-1"​ class="​reference">​[5]</​sup><​sup id="​cite_ref-AO_13-0"​ class="​reference">​[13]</​sup><​sup id="​cite_ref-14"​ class="​reference">​[14]</​sup>​ và là ngôn ngữ khu vực đông người nói thứ hai tại Pakistan, chủ yếu ở miền tây và tây bắc đất nước.<​sup id="​cite_ref-15"​ class="​reference">​[15]</​sup>​Những Khu vực Bộ lạc Liên bang Quản lý (FATA) của Pakistan gần 100% nói tiếng Pashtun, trong khi nó cũng là ngôn ngữ số đông ở tỉnh Khyber Pakhtunkhwa và các huyện miền bắc của Balochistan. Tiếng Pashtun là ngôn ngữ chính của kiều dân Pashtun khắp nơi trên thế giới. Tổng số người nói tiếng Pashtun trên toàn cầu được ước tính là từ 45–60 triệu.<​sup id="​cite_ref-Penzl_1-1"​ class="​reference">​[1]</​sup><​sup id="​cite_ref-Ethnologue-2009_16-0"​ class="​reference">​[16]</​sup><​sup id="​cite_ref-Omniglot_17-0"​ class="​reference">​[17]</​sup><​sup id="​cite_ref-Thomson_18-0"​ class="​reference">​[18]</​sup></​p>​
  
 +<div class="​reflist columns references-column-count references-column-count-2"​ style="​-moz-column-count:​ 2; -webkit-column-count:​ 2; column-count:​ 2; list-style-type:​ decimal;">​
 +<ol class="​references"><​li id="​cite_note-Penzl-1">​^ <​sup><​i><​b>​a</​b></​i></​sup>​ <​sup><​i><​b>​ă</​b></​i></​sup>​ <span class="​reference-text"><​span class="​citation book">​Penzl,​ Herbert; Ismail Sloan (2009). <i>A Grammar of Pashto a Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan</​i>​. Ishi Press International. tr. 210. ISBN 0-923891-72-2<​span class="​reference-accessdate">​. Truy cập ngày 25 tháng 10 năm 2010</​span>​. <​q>​Estimates of the number of Pashto speakers range from 40 million to 60 million...</​q></​span><​span title="​ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&​amp;​rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fvi.wikipedia.org%3ATi%E1%BA%BFng+Pashtun&​amp;​rft.au=Ismail+Sloan&​amp;​rft.au=Penzl%2C+Herbert&​amp;​rft.aufirst=Herbert&​amp;​rft.aulast=Penzl&​amp;​rft.btitle=A+Grammar+of+Pashto+a+Descriptive+Study+of+the+Dialect+of+Kandahar%2C+Afghanistan&​amp;​rft.date=2010-10-25&​amp;​rft.genre=book&​amp;​rft.isbn=0-923891-72-2&​amp;​rft.pages=210&​amp;​rft.pub=Ishi+Press+International&​amp;​rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2F%3Fid%3DzvRePgAACAAJ&​amp;​rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"​ class="​Z3988"><​span style="​display:​none;">​ </​span></​span></​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-2"><​b>​^</​b>​ <span class="​reference-text">​Nationalencyklopedin "​Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World'​s 100 Largest Languages in 2007 (39 million)</​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-3"><​b>​^</​b>​ <span class="​reference-text">​Bản mẫu:​ELL2</​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-T&​amp;​F-4">​^ <​sup><​i><​b>​a</​b></​i></​sup>​ <​sup><​i><​b>​ă</​b></​i></​sup>​ <span class="​reference-text"><​span class="​citation book">​Claus,​ Peter J.; Diamond, Sarah; Ann Mills, Margaret (2003). <​i>​South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia :​ Afghanistan,​ Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka</​i>​. Taylor &amp; Francis. tr. 447. ISBN 9780415939195.</​span><​span title="​ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&​amp;​rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fvi.wikipedia.org%3ATi%E1%BA%BFng+Pashtun&​amp;​rft.au=Ann+Mills%2C+Margaret&​amp;​rft.au=Claus%2C+Peter+J.&​amp;​rft.au=Diamond%2C+Sarah&​amp;​rft.aufirst=Peter+J.&​amp;​rft.aulast=Claus&​amp;​rft.btitle=South+Asian+Folklore%3A+An+Encyclopedia+%3A+Afghanistan%2C+Bangladesh%2C+India%2C+Nepal%2C+Pakistan%2C+Sri+Lanka&​amp;​rft.date=2003&​amp;​rft.genre=book&​amp;​rft.isbn=9780415939195&​amp;​rft.pages=447&​amp;​rft.pub=Taylor+%26+Francis&​amp;​rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"​ class="​Z3988"><​span style="​display:​none;">​ </​span></​span></​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-AC-5">​^ <​sup><​i><​b>​a</​b></​i></​sup>​ <​sup><​i><​b>​ă</​b></​i></​sup>​ <span class="​reference-text">​Constitution of Afghanistan – <​i>​Chapter 1 The State, Article 16 (Languages) and Article 20 (Anthem)</​i></​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-6"><​b>​^</​b>​ <span class="​reference-text"><​span class="​citation book">​Sebeok,​ Thomas Albert (1976). <​i>​Current Trends in Linguistics:​ Index</​i>​. Walter de Gruyter. tr. 705.</​span><​span title="​ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&​amp;​rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fvi.wikipedia.org%3ATi%E1%BA%BFng+Pashtun&​amp;​rft.au=Sebeok%2C+Thomas+Albert&​amp;​rft.aufirst=Thomas+Albert&​amp;​rft.aulast=Sebeok&​amp;​rft.btitle=Current+Trends+in+Linguistics%3A+Index&​amp;​rft.date=1976&​amp;​rft.genre=book&​amp;​rft.pages=705&​amp;​rft.pub=Walter+de+Gruyter&​amp;​rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"​ class="​Z3988"><​span style="​display:​none;">​ </​span></​span></​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-Glottolog-7"><​b>​^</​b>​ <span class="​reference-text"><​span class="​citation book">​Nordhoff,​ Sebastian; Hammarström,​ Harald; Forkel, Robert và đồng nghiệp biên tập (2013). “Pashto”. <​i>​Glottolog</​i>​. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.</​span><​span title="​ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&​amp;​rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fvi.wikipedia.org%3ATi%E1%BA%BFng+Pashtun&​amp;​rft.atitle=Pashto&​amp;​rft.btitle=Glottolog&​amp;​rft.date=2013&​amp;​rft.genre=bookitem&​amp;​rft.place=Leipzig&​amp;​rft.pub=Max+Planck+Institute+for+Evolutionary+Anthropology&​amp;​rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fglottolog.org%2Fresource%2Flanguoid%2Fid%2Fpash1269&​amp;​rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"​ class="​Z3988"><​span style="​display:​none;">​ </​span></​span>​ </​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-Leyden-8"><​b>​^</​b>​ <span class="​reference-text"><​span class="​citation web">​John Leyden, Esq. M.D.; William Erskine, Esq. biên tập (1921). “Events Of The Year 910 (1525)”. <​i>​Memoirs of Babur</​i>​. Packard Humanities Institute. tr. 5<​span class="​reference-accessdate">​. Truy cập ngày 10 tháng 1 năm 2012</​span>​. <q>To the south is Afghanistān. There are eleven or twelve different languages spoken in Kābul: Arabic, Persian, Tūrki, Moghuli, Hindi, <​b>​Afghani</​b>,​ Pashāi, Parāchi, Geberi, Bereki, and Lamghāni.</​q></​span><​span title="​ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&​amp;​rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fvi.wikipedia.org%3ATi%E1%BA%BFng+Pashtun&​amp;​rft.atitle=Events+Of+The+Year+910+%281525%29&​amp;​rft.date=2012-01-10&​amp;​rft.genre=article&​amp;​rft.jtitle=Memoirs+of+Babur&​amp;​rft.pages=5&​amp;​rft.pub=Packard+Humanities+Institute&​amp;​rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fpersian.packhum.org%2Fpersian%2F%2Fpf%3Ffile%3D03501051%26ct%3D92&​amp;​rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"​ class="​Z3988"><​span style="​display:​none;">​ </​span></​span></​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-9"><​b>​^</​b>​ <span class="​reference-text"><​span class="​citation book">​India. Office of the Registrar General (1961). <​i>​Census of India, 1961: Gujarat</​i>​. Manager of Publications. tr. 142, 166, 177.</​span><​span title="​ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&​amp;​rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fvi.wikipedia.org%3ATi%E1%BA%BFng+Pashtun&​amp;​rft.au=India.+Office+of+the+Registrar+General&​amp;​rft.aulast=India.+Office+of+the+Registrar+General&​amp;​rft.btitle=Census+of+India%2C+1961%3A+Gujarat&​amp;​rft.date=1961&​amp;​rft.genre=book&​amp;​rft.pages=142%2C+166%2C+177&​amp;​rft.pub=Manager+of+Publications&​amp;​rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"​ class="​Z3988"><​span style="​display:​none;">​ </​span></​span></​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-Henderson-10"><​b>​^</​b>​ <span class="​reference-text"><​span class="​citation web">​Henderson,​ Michael. “The Phonology of Pashto” <span style="​font-size:​85%;">​(PDF)</​span>​. University of Wisconnsin Madisson<​span class="​reference-accessdate">​. Truy cập ngày 20 tháng 8 năm 2012</​span>​.</​span><​span title="​ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&​amp;​rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fvi.wikipedia.org%3ATi%E1%BA%BFng+Pashtun&​amp;​rft.au=Henderson%2C+Michael&​amp;​rft.aufirst=Michael&​amp;​rft.aulast=Henderson&​amp;​rft.btitle=The+Phonology+of+Pashto&​amp;​rft.date=2012-08-20&​amp;​rft.genre=book&​amp;​rft.pub=University+of+Wisconnsin+Madisson&​amp;​rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fpeople.ku.edu%2F~mmth%2FSample_Pashto_Phonology_I_Term_Paper.pdf&​amp;​rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"​ class="​Z3988"><​span style="​display:​none;">​ </​span></​span></​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-Henderson_1983-11"><​b>​^</​b>​ <span class="​reference-text"><​span class="​citation journal">​Henderson,​ Michael (1983). “Four Varieties of Pashto”. <​i>​Journal of the American Oriental Society</​i>​ (103.595-8).</​span><​span title="​ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&​amp;​rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fvi.wikipedia.org%3ATi%E1%BA%BFng+Pashtun&​amp;​rft.atitle=Four+Varieties+of+Pashto&​amp;​rft.au=Henderson%2C+Michael&​amp;​rft.aufirst=Michael&​amp;​rft.aulast=Henderson&​amp;​rft.date=1983&​amp;​rft.genre=article&​amp;​rft.issue=103.595-8&​amp;​rft.jtitle=Journal+of+the+American+Oriental+Society&​amp;​rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"​ class="​Z3988"><​span style="​display:​none;">​ </​span></​span></​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-Darmesteter_1890-12"><​b>​^</​b>​ <span class="​reference-text"><​span class="​citation book">​Darmesteter,​ James (1890). <​i>​Chants populaires des Afghans</​i>​. Paris.</​span><​span title="​ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&​amp;​rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fvi.wikipedia.org%3ATi%E1%BA%BFng+Pashtun&​amp;​rft.au=Darmesteter%2C+James&​amp;​rft.aufirst=James&​amp;​rft.aulast=Darmesteter&​amp;​rft.btitle=Chants+populaires+des+Afghans&​amp;​rft.date=1890&​amp;​rft.genre=book&​amp;​rft.place=Paris&​amp;​rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"​ class="​Z3988"><​span style="​display:​none;">​ </​span></​span></​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-AO-13"><​b>​^</​b>​ <span class="​reference-text"><​span class="​citation web">​“Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan”. 2004<​span class="​reference-accessdate">​. Truy cập ngày 13 tháng 6 năm 2012</​span>​. <​q>​From among the languages of Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (alsana), Arab and other languages spoken in the country, <​b>​Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state.</​b></​q></​span><​span title="​ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&​amp;​rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fvi.wikipedia.org%3ATi%E1%BA%BFng+Pashtun&​amp;​rft.btitle=Article+Sixteen+of+the+2004+Constitution+of+Afghanistan&​amp;​rft.date=13+June+2012&​amp;​rft.genre=book&​amp;​rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.afghan-web.com%2Fpolitics%2Fcurrent_constitution.html%23preamble&​amp;​rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"​ class="​Z3988"><​span style="​display:​none;">​ </​span></​span></​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-14"><​b>​^</​b>​ <span class="​reference-text"><​span class="​citation book">​Banting,​ Erinn (2003). <​i>​Afghanistan:​ The land</​i>​. Crabtree Publishing Company. tr. 4. ISBN 0-7787-9335-4<​span class="​reference-accessdate">​. Truy cập ngày 22 tháng 8 năm 2010</​span>​.</​span><​span title="​ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&​amp;​rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fvi.wikipedia.org%3ATi%E1%BA%BFng+Pashtun&​amp;​rft.au=Banting%2C+Erinn&​amp;​rft.aufirst=Erinn&​amp;​rft.aulast=Banting&​amp;​rft.btitle=Afghanistan%3A+The+land&​amp;​rft.date=2010-08-22&​amp;​rft.genre=book&​amp;​rft.isbn=0-7787-9335-4&​amp;​rft.pages=4&​amp;​rft.pub=Crabtree+Publishing+Company&​amp;​rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DKRt0HfYFZGsC%26lpg%3DPP1%26vq%3Dplace%2520of%2520Afghans%26pg%3DPA4%23v%3Donepage%26q%26f%3Dfalse&​amp;​rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"​ class="​Z3988"><​span style="​display:​none;">​ </​span></​span></​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-15"><​b>​^</​b>​ <span class="​reference-text">​Population by Mother Tongue, Population Census - Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan</​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-Ethnologue-2009-16"><​b>​^</​b>​ <span class="​reference-text"><​span class="​citation web">​Paul M. Lewis biên tập (2009). “Pashto, Northern”. <​i>​SIL International</​i>​. Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition<​span class="​reference-accessdate">​. Truy cập ngày 18 tháng 9 năm 2010</​span>​. <​q>​Ethnic population: 49,529,000 possibly total Pashto in all countries.</​q></​span><​span title="​ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&​amp;​rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fvi.wikipedia.org%3ATi%E1%BA%BFng+Pashtun&​amp;​rft.atitle=Pashto%2C+Northern&​amp;​rft.date=2010-09-18&​amp;​rft.genre=article&​amp;​rft.jtitle=SIL+International&​amp;​rft.place=Dallas%2C+Texas&​amp;​rft.pub=Ethnologue%3A+Languages+of+the+World%2C+Sixteenth+edition&​amp;​rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ethnologue.com%2Fshow_language.asp%3Fcode%3Dpbu&​amp;​rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"​ class="​Z3988"><​span style="​display:​none;">​ </​span></​span></​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-Omniglot-17"><​b>​^</​b>​ <span class="​reference-text"><​span class="​citation web">​“Pashto”. Omniglot.com<​span class="​reference-accessdate">​. Truy cập ngày 25 tháng 10 năm 2010</​span>​. <​q>​The exact number of Pashto speakers is not known for sure, but most estimates range from 45 million to 55 million.</​q></​span><​span title="​ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&​amp;​rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fvi.wikipedia.org%3ATi%E1%BA%BFng+Pashtun&​amp;​rft.btitle=Pashto&​amp;​rft.date=2010-10-25&​amp;​rft.genre=book&​amp;​rft.pub=Omniglot.com&​amp;​rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.omniglot.com%2Fwriting%2Fpashto.htm&​amp;​rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"​ class="​Z3988"><​span style="​display:​none;">​ </​span></​span></​span>​
 +</li>
 +<li id="​cite_note-Thomson-18"><​b>​^</​b>​ <span class="​reference-text"><​span class="​citation book">​Thomson,​ Gale (2007). <​i>​Countries of the World &amp; Their Leaders Yearbook 08</​i>​ <​b>​2</​b>​. European Union: Indo-European Association. tr. 84. ISBN 0-7876-8108-3<​span class="​reference-accessdate">​. Truy cập ngày 25 tháng 10 năm 2010</​span>​.</​span><​span title="​ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&​amp;​rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fvi.wikipedia.org%3ATi%E1%BA%BFng+Pashtun&​amp;​rft.au=Thomson%2C+Gale&​amp;​rft.aufirst=Gale&​amp;​rft.aulast=Thomson&​amp;​rft.btitle=Countries+of+the+World+%26+Their+Leaders+Yearbook+08&​amp;​rft.date=2010-10-25&​amp;​rft.genre=book&​amp;​rft.isbn=0-7876-8108-3&​amp;​rft.pages=84&​amp;​rft.place=European+Union&​amp;​rft.pub=Indo-European+Association&​amp;​rft.volume=2&​amp;​rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2F%3Fid%3DA6vQ-x7V-bYC&​amp;​rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"​ class="​Z3988"><​span style="​display:​none;">​ </​span></​span></​span>​
 +</li>
 +</​ol></​div>​
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07385-ti-ng-pashtun-la-gi.txt · Last modified: 2018/11/07 17:08 (external edit)